Conductivity of Ionic Solutions
Operation of the Simulation

1. Select a Cation and an Anion to form an Ionic Compound:

For most of these compounds, the name will be a combination of the names of the cation and anion, as in "Sodium Chloride".

If the proper name is not constructed in this way, a dialog box will announce this, as "Ammonium Hydroxide is actually aqueous Ammonia."

2. Click on "conc". A dialog box will ask you to enter a concentration with a default value of 0.0010 moles/liter.

If you have chosen Hydrogen Ion and Hydroxide Ion to form water, the solution will be the pure distilled water that is used to make the solutions.

If the compound you have formed is not soluble at the concentration, a dialog box will inform you of this.

3. There will be a slight delay, then the conductivity meter and probe will appear. Text above the meter states the composition of the solution.
If the compound is not completely soluble, the program mixes the amounts required to form the concentration you have chosen. On close inspection you will see the white precipitate settling to leave a clear solution for measurement of the conductivity.
4. Click on the purple bar on the right side of the meter to read the conductivity.
There are two ranges on this meter: 0 to 1999.9 µS and 2 to 199.9 mS, with very little overlap.
5. The cell constant for this electrode is 1.00 cm2/cm.

The conductivity algorithm produces values within 2% for concentrations up to about 0.1 M.
For many of the solutes, it will produce reasonable values up to about 0.5 M.