Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
is the largest country in the Arabian Peninsula.
It occupies an area about the size of the United
States east of the Mississippi
River. Saudi Arabia’s
population is around 22 million (2004 census), and its capital city is Riyadh.
Saudi Arabia’s geography is diverse, with
forests, grasslands, mountain ranges and deserts. The climate varies
from region to region. Temperatures can reach over 110 degrees
Fahrenheit in the desert in the summer, while in the winter temperatures in
the north and central parts of the country can drop below freezing. Saudi Arabia
gets very little rain, only about four inches a year on average.
Abdul Aziz Al-saud
King Abdul Bin Abdul Aziz Prince
Sultan Bin Abdul Aziz
The history of modern Saudi Arabia
begins with king Abdul Aziz Al-saud , Known in the west
as Ibn saud . The Al-Saud family had reigned
over much of Arabia in the early 19th
century. It lost part of its territory to the Turks later in the century,
however, and was driven from its capital, Riyadh, by the rival House of Rashid. In
1902 Abdul Aziz recaptured the city and began to reconquer and reunify the country, which he completed
some three decades later. In 1927, Abdul Aziz was
officially proclaimed king, and the country was named the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Mosque of Makkah
Mosque of Madina
For centuries the people of the Arabian Peninsula
have possessed a strong identity based upon the tenets of Islam. Saudi Arabia
is a modern nation that adheres to Islam, honors its Arab heritage and
tradition, and presses vigorously forward in the service of Islam while securing
the welfare of its people.
Islam, one of the world's great monotheistic religions, has Saudi Arabia as its heartland.
The followers of Islam, called Muslims, believe in God - in Arabic, Allah
- and that Muhammad is His Prophet. Today, the worldwide community of
Muslims, which embraces the people of many races and cultures, numbers well
over one billion.
Historically, Saudi Arabia
has occupied a special place in the Islamic world, for it is towards Makkah and Islam's most sacred shrine, the Ka'abah, located in the Holy Mosque there,
that Muslims throughout the world turn devoutly in prayer five times a
day. An appreciation of Islamic history and culture is therefore essential
for a genuine understanding of the Kingdom
of Saudi Arabia, its
Islamic heritage and its leading role in the Arab and Muslim worlds.
Map of Saudi Arabia
· Geography and
Saudi Arabia with area of
about 865,000 square miles, occupies the bulk of Arabian
peninsula . It
is roughly one-third the size of the continental United
States, and the same size as all of Western
Europe. It’s located in south west of Asia
( middle east) . it borders
Jordan on the north west , Iraq
on the north and north east , Kuwait
, Qatar , Bahrain , and the United
Arab Emirates on the east , Oman
on the southeast ,and Yemen
on the south, with the Persian gulf to its northeast and the Red sea to its west .
Saudi Arabia has desert climate characterized by
extreme heat during the day, an abrupt drop in
temperature at night, and slight, erratic rainfall.
Hot and dry in summer , cool and rainy in winter. A
uniform climate in Najd ( witch represent the middle region of Saudi Arabia )
.The average summer temperature is 45 ° C, but readings of up to 54 ° C are
common. In the winter, the temperature rarely drops below 0° C. but the
almost total absence of humidity and the high wind-chill factor make a
bitterly cold atmosphere. In the spring and autumn, temperatures average 29°
C. The region of Asir is subject to Indian Ocean monsoons, usually occurring between
October and March. An average of 300 millimeters of rainfall occurs during
this period--60 percent of the annual total. Additionally, in Asir and the southern Hijaz
condensation caused by the higher mountain slopes contributes to the total rainfall.
For the rest of the country, rainfall is low and erratic. The entire year's
rainfall may consist of one or two torrential outbursts that flood the wadis and then rapidly disappear into the
soil to be trapped above the layers of impervious rock.
Mop of Regions of Saudi Arabia
of Saudi Arabia
1- Al-Bahah 2-
Al Hudud ash Shamaliyah
3- Al Jawf 4-
5- Al Gassim
· Capital and main cities
Kingdom Center in Riyadh
Riyadh is the capital and largest city of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia, located in Ar Riyadh Province in the Najd region. It is situated in the
centre of the Arabian peninsula on a large plateau and is home to over
4,260,000[ people (around 20% of the nation's population). The name
derived from the Arabic word meaning a place of gardens and trees ("rawdah"). With many wadis
(a former water course, now dry) in the vicinity, Riyadh
has been, since antiquity, a fertile area set in the heartland of the Arabian peninsula.
located on the coast of the Red Sea is the major urban center in western Saudi Arabia,
the largest in the Western Province,
and the second largest city in Saudi Arabia after the
capital city Riyadh. The population of the city
currently stands at over 3.4 million. It is considered as the commercial
capital of Saudi
Arabia and the wealthiest city in the Middle East and western Asia.
Jeddah is the principal gateway to Mecca, the
holiest city of Islam,
which able-bodied Muslims are required to
visit at least once in a lifetime.
Fahad bridge in Dammam
Dammam is the capital of the Eastern
Province in Saudi Arabia.Dammam
is the largest city in the Eastern Province; Dammam Port
is one of the largest on the Persian
Gulf. Its port for import-export traffic is second to Jeddah's port.
It is served by the new King Fahad
which was used by the US
military during the Gulf War in 1991. Other cities that surround Dammam are Khobar, which is a
thriving modern economic hub, and Dhahran, which is the headquarters for
Saudi Aramco, the largest oil company in the world.
Together the cities have
a population of around 2 million, of whom 750,000 live in the city of Dammam
itself. The local sports stadium is Prince Mohamed bin Fahad
City in northwestern Saudi
Arabia with 690,000 inhabitants (2003
estimate). It is the capital of the Eastern Province
with 3.3 million inhabitants (2003 estimate). Dammam
lies on tip of land stretching out into the Persian Gulf,
forming a large metropolitan and industrial area, with about 1.2 million
inhabitants, together with Khobar, Qatif and Dhahran. Dammam is a
major seaport, involved in a wide variety of export and import. It is a
centre for petroleum and natural gas, but also the centre of all commerce in
the eastern parts of the kingdom. There is some agriculture, largely dealing
with livestock and dairy products. Dhahran has excellent connections with
other urban centres of Saudi
Arabia by highways, and is also linked to Bahrain
with a causeway. Dammam is also the terminus of the
railroad to Riyadh.
The King Fahd International
Airport is shared by
all the cities in the region. Dammam is a modern
city, but has seen less investments and fewer projects than Khobar
The energy sector is the backbone
of the Saudi economy. The Kingdom possesses a quarter of the world’s proven
oil reserves, and is the world’s largest producer and exporter of oil. Saudi Arabia
is also developing its additional energy resources – natural gas that once
flared off oil wells is collected and used, and the Kingdom has become a
producer of refined oil products and petrochemicals such as kerosene, diesel
oil and gasoline.
In addition, with the discovery of deposits of precious and semi-precious
metals, Saudi Arabia
expects to become a major exporter of minerals in the coming decades.
King Fahad university of petroleum and minerals ( k.f.u.p.m)
Saudi Arabia’s education system
has gone through an astonishing transformation. When the Kingdom was
established in 1932, education was available to very few people, mostly the
children of wealthy families living in the major cities.
Today, Saudi Arabia’s
public education system includes 11 universities, with more planned; some
25,000 schools; and a large number of colleges and other institutions. The system
is open to all citizens, and provides students with free education, books and
While the study of Islam remains at its core, the
modern Saudi educational system also provides quality instruction in diverse fields
of arts and sciences. This diversity helps the Kingdom prepare its citizens
for life and work in a global economy.
The riyal has been the currency of Saudi Arabia
since the country came in to being and was the currency of Hejaz before Saudi Arabia was created. The Hejaz riyal was initially equivalent to the Ottoman 20 qurush coin and was consequently divided into 20
qurush, each of 40 para.
riyal was later set equal to the larger Maria
Theresa taller, worth 22 Ottoman qurush. Hence, the Saudi currency
system was initially 22 qurush = 1 riyal. This remained the system of
currency even though the riyal was subsequently debased.
In 1960, the system
was changed to 20 qurush = 1 riyal and this was followed in 1963 by the
introduction of the hallalah, worth one
hundredth of a riyal. Saudi coins still bear denominations in hallallah; Denominations in qurush are not commonly used
in everyday life anymore
And one U.S. dollar =
- Population and
note: includes 5,576,076 non-nationals (July 2006 est.)
0-14 years: 38.2% (male 5,261,530/female
15-64 years: 59.4% (male 9,159,519/female 6,895,616)
65 years and over: 2.4% (male 342,020/female 302,005) (2006 est.)
total: 21.4 years
male: 22.9 years
female: 19.4 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.18% (2006 est.)
population (2006 est.)
population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
/1,000 population (2006 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.33 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.13 male(s)/female
total population: 1.2 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Images : http://www.schools-ksa.com
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