Dr. Grammar - Frequently Asked Questions


The Dr. Grammar Frequently Asked Questions page contains answers to questions previously asked of Dr. Grammar that may provide help with your grammar questions. The questions are listed alphabetically, so they can be searched quickly and easily. Browse through the list of questions from the list below to find help on your topic or, if you want a Complete Reference List, click here or, if you want to search the Dr. Grammar FAQs, click here.

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A lot or Alot? or to listen (click here)
A or An?
Accept or Except?
Acronyms and initialisms?
Active or Passive Verbs?
Affect or Effect?
All Ready or Already?
Allusion or illusion?
Among or amongst?
Among or between?
Amount or Number?
And or but to begin a sentence?
Annotated Bibliographies?
Apostrophes?
As per...?
Assume or presume?

Bad or badly?
Between you and I or between you and me?
Bring and take?

Can I or may I?
Cannot or Can Not?
Capitalization: all the rules?
Capitalization of titles of persons?
Cite or Site?
Colon Use?
Commas and periods inside quotation marks?
Commas?
Complements?
Comprise?
Continually or continuously?
Coordinate or Cumulative Adjectives?

Data or datum?
Different from or different than?
Disinterested or uninterested?
Documenting Online Sources?
Done or finished?
Drank or Drunk?
Due to or owing to?

Each is or each are?
earth or Earth?
Etymology (Word origin)?
Everybody and everyone?
Everyone/everybody is/are happy?

Farther or Further?
Fewer or Less?
Frequently confused words? A list of

Good or Well?

Have got or have gotten?
Have got or have gotten?
Have got or have gotten?
Hopefully?
Hyphenation?

i before e except after c?
i.e. or e.g.?
Idiom?
If or Whether?
Imply or infer?
In regard(s) to?
Independent vs dependent clauses?
Intensifiers? really, really tough?
Into or in to?
Irony, sarcasm, or facetiousness?
It is I or it is me?
It's her or it's she?
Its or It's?

Licence or License?
Lie or Lay ?
Like or such as?
Linking Verbs?
littler and littlest?

Majority is or are?
May or might?
Me, Myself, or I?
Mid- or just mid?
Mrs./Miss/Ms.?

Netiquette
None is or none are?
Non errors?
Non-Sexist Language?
Numbers: When to spell out and when to write as numbers?

OK or okay?
OK--Word origin?
On or upon?/ in or into?

Parallelism?
Parenthetical Documentation?
Plurals of Abbreviations, Letters,
and Numbers?

Plurals of proper names?
Possessive with a gerund?
Practise or practice?
Preposition at end?
Proportional or proportionate?
Punctuation of Dates?

Quotation Marks and Other Punctuation

Reason is because?
Regular and irregular verbs?

Seemingly Plural Pronouns?
Semicolon use?
Set or Sit?
Shall or will?
sic?
Single quotation marks?
Spacing after concluding marks of punctuation?
Split infinitives? "To boldly go where..."
State Abbreviations?
Subjunctive? If I were/was a rich man...

That or Which?
The faculty is or the faculty are?
The meanings of grammar?
Then or than?
Thru or through?
To, too, or two?
Toward or towards?
Toward(s), forward(s), backward(s)?
Transitive or intransitive verbs?
Try and or try to?

Unique or more unique?

Who or That or Which or What?
Who or Whom?
Why is "I" capitalized?
Word & Phrase Origins?
Words ending in -GRY?
Works Cited Page?

A lot or Alot?
A lot should be written as two words. Although a lot is used informally to mean "a large number" or "many," avoid using a lot in formal writing. Example: "The crook had many (not a lot of) chances to rob the stranger."

A or An?
According to The Oxford Dictionary of American Usage and Style, "The indefinite article a is used before words beginning with a consonant sound, including /y/ and /w/ sounds. The other form, an, is used before words beginning with a vowel sound. Hence, a European country, a Ouija board, a uniform, an FBI agent, an MBA degree, an SEC filing. Writers on usage formerly disputed whether the correct article is a or an with historian, historic, and a few other words. The traditional rule is that if the h- is sounded, a is the proper form. Most people following that rule would say a historian and a historic--e.g.:'Democrat Bill Clinton appears within reach of capturing the White House in Tuesday's election, but Republicans hope that late momentum, can enable President Bush to win a historic upset' (Dallas Morning News). Even H.W. Fowler, in the England of 1926, advocated a before historic(al) and humble (MEU1).
The theory behind using an in such a context, however, is that the h- is very weak when the accent is on the second rather than the first syllable (giving rise, by analogy, to an habitual offender, an humanitarian, an hallucinatory image, and an harassed schoolteacher). Thus no authority countenances an history[emphasis added], though a few older ones prefer an historian and an historical.
Today, however, an hypothesis and an historical are likely to strike readers and listeners as affectations. As Mark Twain once wrote, referring to humble, heroic, and historical: 'Correct writers of the American language do not put an before those words' (The Stolen White Elephant,1882). Anyone who sounds the h- in such words should avoid pretense and use a (Garner 1).

Accept or Except?
Accept is a verb meaning "to receive" or "to approve." Example: "I accept your offer of the book." Except is a verb meaning "to leave out" or "to exclude." Example: "He excepted all Corvettes from his list of favorite cars." Except can also be a preposition meaning "excluding" or "leaving out." Example: "He liked everything on the plate except the liver."

Acronyms and initialisms?
According to The Business Writer's Handbook, "An acronym is an abbreviation that is formed by combining the first letter or letters of several words. Acronyms are pronounced as words and are written without periods.
EXAMPLES: radio detecting and ranging/radar Common Business-Oriented Language/ COBOL self-contained underwater breathing apparatus/ scuba
An initialism is an abbreviation that is formed by combining the initial letter of each word in a multiword term. Initialisms are pronounced as separate letters.
EXAMPLES: end of month/ e.o.m. cash on delivery/ c.o.d. post meridian/ p.m.
Usage guidelines:
The following are sample guidelines to apply in deciding whether to use acronyms and initialisms:

--If you must use a multiword term as much as once each paragraph, you should instead use its acronym or initialism. For example, a phrase such as "primary software overlay area" can become tiresome if repeated again and again in one piece of writing; it would be better, therefore, to use PSOA.

--If something is better known by its acronym or initialism than by its formal term, you should use the abbreviated form. The initialism a.m., for example, is much more common than the formal ante meridiem. If these conditions do not exist, however, always spell out the full term.

--The first time an acronym or initialism appears in a written work, write the complete term, followed by the abbreviated form in parentheses.

EXAMPLE: "The Capital Appropriations Request (CAR) controls the spending of money." Thereafter, you may use the acronym or initialism alone. In a long document, however, you will help the reader greatly by repeating the full term in parentheses at regular intervals so that he or she does not have to search back to the first time the acronym or initialism was used to find its meaning.
EXAMPLE: "Remember that the CAR ( Capital Appropriations Request ) controls the spending of money."
Write acronyms in capital letters without periods. The only exceptions are those acronyms that have become accepted as common nouns, which are written in lowercase letters.
EXAMPLE: "NASA," "HUD," "laser," "scuba." Initialisms may be written either uppercase or lowercase. Generally, do not use periods when they are uppercase, but use periods when they are lowercase. Two exceptions are geographic names and academic degrees.
EXAMPLES: EDP/e.d.p., EOM/e.o.m., OD/ o.d." (14-17).

Plurals of words, acronyms, and initialisms not normally pluralized?
Form the plural of an acronym or initialism by adding an s. Do not use an apostrophe.
EXAMPLES: "MIRVs," "CRTs." To form the plural of words that do not have true plural forms, just add s.
EXAMPLES: "The dos and don'ts of writing are many." "The ifs, ands, or buts of life are many."

Active or Passive Verbs?
According to The Grammar Bible, "The voice of a verb indicates the strength of the subject in a sentence. It tells us whether that subject takes action or receives action. There are two possible voices: active and passive. In the active voice, the stronger form, the subject of the sentence takes the action of the verb. Our army won the battle. The subject army is strong since it takes action. This sentence uses the active voice. In the passive voice, the weaker form, the subject is acted upon. The battle was won by our army. In this sentence, the subject battle is weak because it receives the action of the army. It takes no action of its own--a battle cannot win itself--and so the sentence uses the passive voice" (43-44). Hope this helps.

Affect or Effect?
We've been confusing these two since about 1494, and I still need to look them up every time I use them. The following explanation is from The Longman Writer's Companion: "Affect is a verb meaning to 'influence.' Effect is a noun meaning 'a result.' More rarely, effect is a verb meaning 'to cause something to happen.' Examples: CFCs may affect the deterioration of the ozone layer. The effect of that deterioration on global warming is uncertain. Lawmakers need to effect changes in public attitudes toward our environment" (424).

All Ready or Already?
All ready means "fully prepared." Example: "The scouts were all ready for the test." Already means "previously." Example: "The children were already in the pool when the guests arrived."

Allusion or illusion?
"Allusion means reference: 'He made an allusion to last week's meeting.' Illusion is an unreality: 'That a pair of railroad tracks seem to meet in the distance is an optical illusion'" (Parle Craig, Ruth, Vincent Hopper. 1001 Pitfalls in English Grammar 70).

Among or amongst?
Both are correct and mean the same, but among is more common.

Among or between?
"Between is used in connection with two persons or things: 'He divided the money between his two children.' Among is used for more than two: 'He divided the money among his three children.' EXCEPTIONS: If more than two are involved in a united situation, between is used: 'Between the four of us, we raised a thousand dollars.' If a comparison or an opposition is involved, between is used: 'There was great rivalry between the three colleges. It was difficult to choose between them.'" (Parle-Craig, Ruth, and Vincent Hooper. Barron's 1001 Pitfalls in English Grammar 70)

Amount or Number?
Amount should be used to refer to quantities that cannot be counted or cannot be expressed in terms of a single number. Example: "Repairing the Edsel took a great amount of work." Number is used for quantities that can be counted. Example: "A large number of deer ate the corn."

And or but to begin a sentence?
Patricia O'Conner, author of Woe Is I, says, "It's been common practice to begin sentences with them (and & but) since at least as far back as the tenth century. But don't overdo it, or your writing will sound monotonous" (185).

Annotated Bibliographies?
[Click on Section-"Annotated Bibliographies."]Annotated Bibliographies

Apostrophes?
"(Purposes of apostrophe.) People unaccustomed to writing sometimes tend to drop in an apostrophe at the drop of a hat. One ad touts azalea's; another speaks of a closeout of diamond's; and still another says it is time to select your sandle's (by which is supposedly meant sandals). In each instance the apostrophe is not only superfluous, but also wrong. The apostrophe is used for three purposes: to indicate the omission of one or more letters (can't, don't) or figures (the spirit of '76); to indicate the possessive case (Tom's dog); and to indicate the plurals of letters (there are two m's in accommodate), figures (B-52's) and sometimes words....
Is it Womens Day program or Women's Day program--should one use the possessive apostrophe? The answer is yes, use the apostrophe. The apostrophe is dropped these days in some instances in which the plural is indicated by a final s--for example, Teachers College, Citizens Union, Doctors Hospital. But when the plural is indicated without any final s--as it is in women or men--the apostrophe plus the s is necessary.
....One news article said, 'Commander Brant, a lawyer with 11 years service in the Navy, declined to comment.' Another said, 'He had had three hours sleep and innumerable telephone calls during the night at his home in Jamaica, Queens.' Those phrases--11 years service and three hours sleep--should be in the possessive case or more aptly, since there is no real possession involved, the genitive case. Therefore they should be rendered with apostrophes: 11 years' service and three hours' sleep" (Bernstein, Theodore. Dos, Don'ts & Maybes of English Usage 19-20, 171).
WANT MORE ? CLICK HERE. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/grammar/g_apost.html

As per...?
The Merriam Webster's Dictionary of English Usage says the following: "We find as per used in two ways. It is still in use in business correspondence and in straightforward but somewhat stiff prose similar to such correspondence.... Your decision to use as per or not would seem to be a matter of personal choice and taste; the tonal needs of a particular passage may make it useful at times even if you avoid it ordinarily" (133).

Assume or presume?
According to Patricia O'Conner, author of Woe Is I, "They're not identical. Assume is closer to suppose, or "take for granted'; the much stronger presume is closer to believe, dare, or 'take too much for granted.' I can only assume you are joking when you presume to call yourself a plumber!" (90-91).

Bad or badly?
We use bad (an adjective) with linking verbs such as is, seems, feels, looks, or appears. Example: "I feel bad that I missed the concert." We use the adverb badly with action verbs. Example: "The new car steers badly." "I feel badly" means my sense of touch is impaired. "He smells badly" means he can't detect the smell of his girlfriend's perfume, but "He smells bad" means he needs to shower and use deodorant.

Between you and I or between you and me?
According to The Oxford Dictionary of American Usage and Style, "Because the pronouns following between are objects of the preposition, the correct phrase is between you and me. Yet the phrasing between you and I is appallingly common--'a grammatical error of unsurpassable grossness,' as one commentator puts it (41). The Careful Writer notes that "Most of those who say or write between you and I, Shakespeare excepted, are guilty of overrefinement. They have been corrected when they used 'It is me" or 'You and me ought to get together,' and have become gun-shy about the word "me." In addition they are confused because the word 'you' is the same in the objective case as it is in the nominative; therefore, although they would not dream of saying or writing between him and they or between her and we or between us and she, the phrase between you and I does not sound bad to them. But bad it is, and indefensible grammatically. Between is a preposition and it is followed by the objective case: me. To say between you and I is a needless, pointless, and ignorant exception to a good rule" (74).

Bring and take?
According to Theodore Bernstein, author of Dos, Dont's, & Maybes of the English Language. "Bring and take both involve direction when they denote physical movement: bring means movement in the direction of the speaker or writer, take means movement away from the speaker or writer.... When no physical movement is involved, bring may properly be used in the sense of produce as a result: 'The President's message is expected to bring the whole issue to a climax'" (32). Patricia O'Connor, author of Woe Is I, asks, "Which way is the merchandise moving? Is it coming or going? If it's coming here, someone's bringing it. If it's going there, someone's taking it. ( 'Bring me my slippers,' said Rhoda, 'and take away those stiletto heels!' ) That much is pretty straightforward, but there are gray areas where the bringing and the taking aren't so clear. Say you're a dinner guest and you decide to tote a bottle of wine along with you. Do you bring it or do you take it? The answer depends on your perspective--on which end of the journey you're talking about, the origin or the destination. 'What shall I bring, white or red?' you ask the host. 'Bring red,' he replies. ( Both you and he are speaking of the wine from the point of view of its destination--the host. ) Ten minutes later, you're asking the wine merchant, 'What should I take, a Burgundy or a Bordeaux?' 'Take this one' she says. ( Both you and she are speaking of the wine from the point of view of its origin. ) Clear? If not, pour yourself a glass, take it easy, and say what sounds most natural. You'll probably be right" (93).

Can I or may I?
"Can implies ability: 'Can you (are you able to) lift that heavy box? May denotes permission: 'May I (Have I permission to) swim in your pool?'" (Parle-Craig and Vincent Hopper. Barron's 1001 Pitfalls in English Grammar 71)

Cannot or Can Not?
According to Merriam Webster's Dictionary of English Usage, "Both spellings are acceptable, but cannot is more frequent in current use. Chambers 1985 insists that cannot must be used in British English unless the not is to receive particular emphasis. A couple of American sources (Oxford American Dictionary 1980, Trimble 1975) mention that the two-word form can be used to indicate special emphasis.... "Can you jump? I can not, says the sergeant" (219).

Capitalization: all the rules? http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/grammar/g_caps.html

Capitalization in titles?
"In titles, capitalize the first word, the last word, and all words in between except articles (a, an, and the), prepositions under five letters (in, of, to), and coordinating conjunctions (and, but). These rules apply to titles of long, short, and partial works as well as your own papers" (Anson, Schwegler, and Muth. The Longman Writer's Companion 240).

Capitalization of titles of persons?
"Capitalize titles of persons when used as part of a proper name but usually not when used alone.
District Attorney Marshall was reprimanded...
The district attorney was elected for a two-year term.
Usage varies when the title of an important public figure is used alone. The president [or President] vetoed the bill" (Hacker, Diana. A Writer's Reference 291).

Cite or Site?
Cite is a verb meaning "to quote for purposes of example, authority, or proof." Example: "He cites many experts in his article." Site is usually used as a noun meaning "place or scene." Example: "Check the AARP website," and "We erected the wall on the site of our future home."

Colon Use?
Use a colon to introduce an explanation, example, list, or quotation. The colon used this way must be preceded by an independent clause, a clause which contains a subject and a verb and can stand alone as a complete sentence. An explanation or example can be a single word,a phrase,or a clause: Examples: "She has but one goal:success." "One task remains: to script the final project." "The financial agreement put a block between defense and education: No [no] money was to be transferred between the two." When the second of two independent clauses explains, elaborates, or illustrates the first, you may use a colon to join the clauses. Example: "Our team is inexperienced:six of the players are sophomores,and two are freshmen." Some writers capitalize the first word after the colon, but capitalization is optional;a lowercase letter after a colon is always correct. Use a colon to introduce a list that follows an independent clause. The independent clause before the list will contain expressions such as "the following" or "as follows." Example: "Her arguments were as follows: don't link love and...." Do not use a colon after a verb. Example: "They are: ready, willing, and able."

Commas and periods inside quotation marks?
All commas and periods go inside quotation marks. There are no exceptions.

Commas?
These are the basic comma rules; learn them, download them, laminate them, keep the copy with you whenever you write, and you will solve 98% of your comma problems.

1) Put a comma before and, but, for,or, nor, so, yet when they connect two independent clauses [that is, sentences that can stand alone: read both aloud;each could start with a capital letter and end with a period].
EXAMPLES: "She hit the shot, and he cheered for her." "She hit the shot." and "He cheered for her."
"The dog bit him, and he bit the dog." "The dog bit him." and "He bit the dog."

2) Separate three or more items in a series with a comma.
EXAMPLES: "I like Corvettes, Porsches, and Buicks."
"We want to protect cats, dogs, and horses."
NOT: "I like cats, dogs and horses."

"In...formal writing..., the 'serial' or 'series' comma is ordinarily retained before the conjunction that joins the last item in a sequence of three or more words or phrases--'hither, thither, and yon'; 'of the people, by the people, and for the people.' I stoutly defend the use of the serial comma because I have found that in many sentences the comma before the conjunction is an aid to clarity and emphasis. Consider these examples:
'For dinner, the Girl Scouts ate steak, onions and ice cream.'
'For dinner, the Girl Scouts ate steak, onions, and ice cream.'
'We believe in freedom, justice and equality.'
'We believe in freedom, justice, and equality.'
The first sentence sounds as if the Scouts devoured a yucky concoction of onions and (urp!) ice cream. The serial comma in the second sentence avoids such gastronomic ambiguity. In the third sentence, the rhythm of the series sounds jerky to the ear, while the serial comma in the fourth helps the final term, equality, to ring out as loudly as the others. So don't be commatose. Use your comma sense and press into service the serial comma" (Lederer, Richard. Adventures of a Verbivore 225).

3) Put a comma after introductory modifiers.
EXAMPLES: "Because I was hungry, I bought a hamburger."
"Hungry and tired, I bought a hamburger."
"When I get hungry, I do stupid stuff."
"After dieting for weeks, I bought a hamburger."
"Dying for a burger, I settled for a cheese sandwich."

4) Set off interrupters with pairs of commas, pairs of parentheses, or pairs of dashes.
Examples: "The hamburger, hot and juicy, tasted great."
"The hamburger--which was hot and juicy--tasted great."
"The hamburger (made from ground beef and tofu) tasted great."

5) Put commas around the name of a person or group spoken to.
EXAMPLES: "I hope, Carlene, that you're going with me."
"Carlene, you're five minutes late."
"You're five minutes late, Carlene."
"Study hard, Carlene, and you'll pass."

6) Put commas around an expression that interrupts the flow of the sentence.
EXAMPLES: "It will, I think, take only two days."
"I hope, of course, that they will arrive on time."
"We took our poles, therefore, and got into the boat."

WARNING: Whether a word is an interrupter or not depends on where it is in the sentence. If it is in the middle of a sentence, it's more likely to be an interrupter than if it's at the beginning or the end. The expressions that were interrupters in the above examples are not interrupters in the following sentences and do not require commas.
EXAMPLES: "I think it will take only two days."
"Of course I hope they will arrive on time."
"Therefore we took our poles and got into the boat."

WARNING: When one of the above words like however comes between two independent clauses (sentences that can stand alone), it requires a semicolon before it and a comma after it.
EXAMPLES: "The cab was late; however, I made it to the train on time."
"She did not want to go; furthermore, she had only shabby clothes."
"She wanted an A; therefore, she worked harder than the other students."
"I spent months on the car; finally, I made it a show-stopper."
Separate three or more items in a series with a comma.
EXAMPLES: "I like Corvettes, Porsches, and Buicks."
"We want to protect cats, dogs, and horses."

Complements?
A Writer's Reference says, "Linking verbs (v) take subject complements (sc), words or word groups that complete the meaning of the subject (s) by either renaming it or describing it.
The handwriting on the wall may be a forgery.
When the simple subject complement renames the subject, it is a noun or pronoun, such as forgery; when it describes the subject it is an adjective, such as blind" (414).

"Adjectives ordinarily precede nouns, but they can also function as subject complements following linking verbs.... When an adjective functions as a subject complement, it describes the subject. [Ex:] Justice is blind.
Problems can arise with verbs such as smell, taste, look, and feel, which may or may not be linking. If the word following one of the verbs describes the subject, use an adjective; if it modifies the verb, use an adverb.
ADJECTIVE The detective looked cautious.
ADVERB The detective looked cautiously for the fingerprints.(201)

"When a pronoun functions as a subject or a subject complement, it must be in the subjective case (I, we, you, he/she/ it, they).
SUBJECT Sylvia and he shared the award.
SUBJECT Greg announced that the winners were Sylvia
COMPLEMENT and he" (194).

Comprise?
Bill Walsh, author of Lapsing Into a Comma, says, "Nothing is ever 'comprised of' something.' To comprise means to 'contain or to embrace': The jury comprises seven women and five men.... Even when used correctly, in my humble opinion, comprise and constitute tend to sound stilted. Some form of is made up of sounds better in most cases" (123).

Continually or continuously?
According to The Columbia Guide to Standard American English, "Unlike the adjectives, these two [adverbs] are frequently interchangeable, although they preserve some distinctions in much of Standard English. Continuously is used to treat of space: These filaments come continuously from the machine. It is also used of time: It rained continuously for nearly a week; it never ceased. In It rained continually for nearly a week, we usually understand that the rain stopped briefly from time to time" (Wilson 113). Patricia T. O'Conner notes that..."there is a slight difference, although most people (and even many dictionaries) treat them the same. Continually means repeatedly, with breaks in between. Continuously means without interruption, in an unbroken stream. Heidi has to wind the cuckoo clock continually to keep it running continuously. (If it is important to emphasize the distinction, it's probably better to use periodically or intermittently instead of continually to describe something that starts and stops.) The same distinction, by the way, applies to continual and continuous, the adjective forms" (Woe is I 95).

Coordinate or Cumulative Adjectives?
According to The Bedford Handbook for Writers, "adjectives are coordinate if they can be joined with and (strong and confident and independent woman) or if they can be scrambled (an independent, strong, and confident woman).
EXAMPLE: With the help of a therapist, Mother has become a strong, confident, independent woman." The adjectives strong, confident, and independent modify Mother separately. They can be connected with and, and they can be scrambled. Adjectives that do not modify the noun separately are cumulative.
EXAMPLE: Three large gray shapes moved slowly toward us. Beginning with the adjective closest to the noun shapes, these modifiers lean on one another, piggyback style, with each modifying a larger word group. Gray modifies shapes, large modifies gray shapes, and three modifies large gray shapes. We cannot insert the word and between cumulative adjectives (three and large andgray three large shapes)" (354-355).

Data or datum?
"In much informal writing, data is considered a collective singular noun. In formal scientific and scholarly writing, however, data is generally used as a plural, with datum as the singular form. Base your decision on whether your readers should consider the data as a single collection or as a group of individual facts. Whatever you decide, be sure that your pronouns and verbs agree in number with the selected usage. EXAMPLES: The data are voluminous.
They indicate a link between smoking and lung cancer. (formal) The data is now ready for evaluation. It is in the mail. (less formal) (Alred, Gerald, Charles Brusaw and Walter Oliu. The Technical Writer's Companion 313).

Different from or different than?
"What's the difference? The simple answer is that different from is almost always right, and different than is almost always wrong. You can stop there if you like" (O'Conner, Patricia. Woe is I 96). "Different than is acceptable when it is followed by a clause: "The job cost was different than we had estimated it'" (Alred, Gerald, Charles Brusaw andWalter Oliu. The Technical Writer's Companion 313).

Disinterested or uninterested?
"They're not the same. Disinterested means impartial or neutral; uninterested means bored or lacking interest. A good umpire should be disinterested, said Casey, but certainly not uninterested (O'Conner, Patricia. Woe is I 97).

Documenting Online Sources?
The first question you must ask and answer is what citation style you are required to use: MLA-Modern Language Association (MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers), APA-American Psychological Association (Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association), Chicago-(Chicago Manual of Style),CBE-Council of Biology Editors (Scientific Style and Format: The CBE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers)? Once you determine the appropriate style of documentation, you can click on Dr.Grammar's Writing Resources page and then click on Documentation: MLA or Documentation: APA, both of which detail the methods of citing printed materials and internet sources. Clicking on Documentation: Columbia Online Style will open up another style of documenting online sources. All sources need to be documented in the text and linked to a corresponding entry on the Works Cited (MLA) or Resources (APA) page. Internet sources come in two forms: articles that have been previously published in the print media ( Time, Newsweek, Chicago Tribune, scholarly journals, or books, etc.) and articles or web sites that have life only on the W.W.W. If you find, for instance, an article on the internet that had been previously published in Newsweek, you would begin your citation on the Works Cited or References page with the full publication information (author, title of article, title of magazine, date of publication etc.) followed by the date you accessed the web- site and the full URL number:
EXAMPLE: Johnson, Paul P. "Golf in the Kingdom." Golf Digest 3 May 1999. 7 June 2000 http://www.golfdigest.com. In the text of your paper you need to insert a parenthetical reference to the sample above. Its essential elements are the author's name (or the document's title if no author is identified) and a page reference if available. When citing a document that exists only on the W.W.W., the basic Works Cited entry would contain the following: Author's name (last name first). Document title. Date of Internet publication. Date of access+ . Since the W.W.W. is itself a work in progress, it is constantly changing as are the systems which attempt to document material found there. Perhaps the easiest source of information concerning each system of documentation is a book entitled Online by Harnack and Kleppinger ISBN: 0-312-24357-X. Try www.bedfordstmartins.com/online
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Done or finished?
According to The Columbia Guide to STANDARD AMERICAN ENGLISH, "Today both done and finished are Standard, and you may use whichever one meets the style requirements of your speech or writing" ( Wilson 152).

Drank or Drunk?
Drink(Present Indicative), drank(Past Indicative), drunk(Past Participle). The past perfect indicative consists of had followed by the past participle: "She had drunk...." According to The Grammar Bible, "Irregular verbs form the past indicative and past participle in irregular ways. There is no easy method to use. A vowel can change. A consonant can be added. Or the form can remain the same across all three parts (hurt-hurt-hurt). Only a good memory can account for the many forms that irregular verbs can take" (Strumpf 59).

Due to or owing to?
This argument dates back to 1755. According to The Merriam Webster's Dictionary of English Usage, "Due to is as impeccable grammatically as owing to, which is frequently recommended as a substitute for it. There never has been a grammatical ground for objection, although the objection formulated in the early part of this century persists in the minds of some usage commentators.... There is no solid reason to avoid using due to" (375).

Each is or each are?
"When each is used as a subject, it takes a singular verb or pronoun. EXAMPLE: Each of the reports is to be submitted ten weeks after it is assigned. When each occurs after a plural subject with which it is in grammatical apposition, it takes a plural verb or pronoun. EXAMPLE: The reports each have white embossed titles on their covers" (Alred, Gerald, Charles Brusaw and Walter Oliu. The Technical Writer's Companion 313).

earth or Earth?
When you mean dirt, it's "earth." When you mean the third planet from the sun, it's Earth. Don't get lost in the galaxy.

Etymology (Word origin)?
http://www.wilton.net/wordoro.html

Everybody and everyone?
Everybody and everyone are interchangeable.
Anyone and anybody are also interchangeable.

Everyone/everybody is/are happy?
"What's wrong with saying, Are everybody happy? After all, when you use the word everybody, you're thinking of a crowd, right? Then why do we say, Is everybody happy? instead of Are everybody happy? In other words, just how many people do we mean when we say everybody or everyone?
The answer is one. Odd as it may seem, these pronouns are singular. We often use them when talking about whole gangs of people, but we treat them grammatically as individual gang members. The result is that each takes a singular verb: Everybody loves a lover, but not everybody is one" (O'Conner, Patricia. Woe is I 15).

Farther or Further?
The Careful Writer offers the following advice: "The general preference is to restrict farther to ideas of physical distance and to use further for everything else. This, then, would be improper: 'The Thor's production prototype was farther advanced than that of the Army.' Fifty years hence writers probably will not have to worry about this distinction, because it looks as if farther is going to be mowed down by the scythe of Old Further Time" (181).
Use farther to refer to physical distances (Indiana is farther than I thought) and further to refer to quantity, time, or degree (They progressed further on their research).

Fewer or Less?
Fewer is an adjective used to refer to people or items that can be counted. Example: "Because fewer cars showed up for the show, we required fewer categories." Less is used to refer to amounts that cannot be counted. Example: "The small dogs required less space and less food than the large dogs."

Frequently confused words? A list of
Try this link Have Fun!

Good or Well?
Good and well are often misused. According to The Grammar Bible, "good is an adjective. It can only modify nouns and pronouns. Well is an adverb. It can only modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. Too many people use good, the adjective, when they need well, the adverb. I scored good on my spelling test.(incorrect) The new car runs good. (incorrect) In each example, the adjective good modifies a verb, scored and runs, respectively. Only adverbs modify verbs. These situations call for the adverb well. I scored well on my spelling test.(correct) The new car runs well.(correct) A frequently used expression, 'to feel well,' in American parlance, implies that one's touching ability is in excellent condition" (141-142).
Brianís Common Errors in English, see Writing Resources, provides further explanation: "'Good' is the adjective, 'well' is the adverb. You do something well, but you give someone something good. The exception is verbs of sensation in phrases such as 'the pie smells good,' or 'I feel good'[emphasis added]. Despite the arguments of nigglers, this is standard usage. Saying 'the pie smells well' would imply that the pastry in question had a nose. ' I feel well' is also generally acceptable; but it is not the only correct usage." I hope the exception above helps to explain the rule.

Have got or have gotten?
According to Patricia O'Conner, author of Woe Is I, "At one time, everyone agreed that the verb get had two past participles: got and gotten.... It's true that the British stopped using have gotten about three hundred years ago, while we in the Colonies kept using both have got and have gotten. But the result is not that Americans speak improper English. The result is that we have retained a nuance of meaning that the unfortunate Britons have lost.
When we say, Bruce has got three Armani suits, we mean he has them in his possession. It's another way of saying he has them.
When we say, Bruce has gotten three Armani suits, we mean he's acquired or obtained them.
It's a useful distinction...(191-2).

Have got or have gotten?
According to Patricia O'Conner, author of Woe Is I, "At one time, everyone agreed that the verb get had two past participles: got and gotten.... It's true that the British stopped using have gotten about three hundred years ago, while we in the Colonies kept using both have got and have gotten. But the result is not that Americans speak improper English. The result is that we have retained a nuance of meaning that the unfortunate Britons have lost.
When we say, Bruce has got three Armani suits, we mean he has them in his possession. It's another way of saying he has them.
When we say, Bruce has gotten three Armani suits, we mean he's acquired or obtained them.
It's a useful distinction...(191-2).

Have got or have gotten?
According to Patricia O'Conner, author of Woe Is I, "At one time, everyone agreed that the verb get had two past participles: got and gotten.... It's true that the British stopped using have gotten about three hundred years ago, while we in the Colonies kept using both have got and have gotten. But the result is not that Americans speak improper English. The result is that we have retained a nuance of meaning that the unfortunate Britons have lost.
When we say, Bruce has got three Armani suits, we mean he has them in his possession. It's another way of saying he has them.
When we say, Bruce has gotten three Armani suits, we mean he's acquired or obtained them.
It's a useful distinction...(191-2).

Hopefully?
This word has brought scorn and red ink from grammarians for years. However, Richard Lederer in Adventures of a Verbivore explains why hopefully has gained acceptance.
Since the seventeenth century, hopefully has been employed with the meaning "in a hopeful manner," as in Robert Louis Stevenson's aphorism "To travel hopefully is better than to arrive." But during the last three decades in the United States hopefully has donned new clothes. Now we can scarcely get through a day without meeting statements like "Hopefully, the changes taking place in Eastern Europe will make a safer world for our children" and "Her first day on the job will hopefully not be her last."
Something has happened to hopefully in such sentences. First, the adverb has acquired a new meaning, roughly "it is to be hoped." Second, hopefully now applies to situations (as in the two examples above) rather than only to people. Third, rather than modifying a specific verb (such as travel in Stevenson's pronouncement), the adverb now modifies the entire sentence.... Finally (note how finally modifies the rest of this sentence as a perfectly acceptable floating adverb), when a new word knocks at the door of our language, we must ask, "Is it a useful addition?' I believe that the new-age hopefully has entered English because it does indeed fill a need of those who use the language. In these secular times, we no longer say with ease "God willing." Instead (another floating adverb), we turn to hopefully because it avoids the wordiness and weak passivity of "it is to be hoped that" and sidesteps, especially in writing, the egotistical intrusiveness of "I hope." (201,203)

Hyphenation?
Brian's Common Errors in English suggests the following: "The Chicago Manual of Style contains a huge chart listing various sorts of phrases which are or are not to be hyphenated. Consult such a reference source for a thorough-going account of this matter, but you may be able to get by with a few basic rules.
An adverb/adjective combination in which the adverb ends in -LY is never hyphenated: 'His necktie reflected his generally grotesque taste.' Other sorts of adverbs are followed by a hyphen when combined with an adjective: 'His long-suffering wife finally snapped and fed it through the office shredder.'
Adjectives combined with nouns having an -ED suffix are hyphenated: 'Frank was a hot-headed cop.'
Hyphenate ages when they are adjective phrases involving a unit of measurement: 'Her ten-year-old car is beginning to give her trouble.' A girl can be a 'ten-year-old' ('child' is implied). But there are no hyphens when outside of such an adjectival phrase: 'Her car is ten years old.' Fractions are almost always hyphenated: 'He is one-quarter Irish and three-quarters Nigerian.' The exception is when the numerator is already hyphenated, as in 'ninety-nine and forty-four one hundredths.' A phrase composed of a noun and a present participle ('-ing' word) must be hyphenated: 'The antenna had been climbed by thrill-seeking teenagers who didn't realize the top of it was electrified' (32).
The Grammar Bible offers additional clarification and examples:
"The hyphen links multiple words into a single expression.
Don't look at me with that holier-than-thou expression.
This town is full of has-beens and wanna-bes.
The hyphen is often placed between the root word and a prefix when the alternative (no hyphen) can be easily misread.
Despite his record, the company decided to re-employ Mr. David Jones.
The city officials are taking a pro-orthodoxy standpoint.
When a word is broken between the end of one line and the beginning of the next, place the hyphen after the first piece to indicate that the remainder will follow on the next line.
Marjorie and Her Singing Spaniels are to perform their ren-
dition
of Handel's Messiah this Thursday....
Hyphens are used in compound adjectives. A compound adjective consists of two or more words that are read as one and function as a single adjective. Since the two words cannot be joined into a single word, we place a hyphen between them.
Those are sweet-smelling gardenias.
Thankfully, it was a well-planned meeting.
We live in an eighth-floor apartment. Here's a short list to help you remember other words that need hyphens and a few that do not.
Always hyphenate
* all forms of in-law: brother-in-law, father-in-law.
* all great compounds: great-aunt, great-grandfather.
* all vice compounds: vice-counsul, vice-chairman.
* all elect compounds: mayor-elect, president-elect. * all self compounds: self-taught, self-assured.
Do not hyphenate
* any ache compound: toothache, backache (unless forced to at the end of a line).
* any book compound: textbook, notebook (unless forced to at the end of a line)" (Strumpf 538-540).

i before e except after c?
We've all been taught the rule, but Richard Lederer has compiled a list of 144 exceptions, the last of which is Deity. To find the complete list, get a copy Richard Lederer's Adventures of a Verbifore( 222 ). You can also check out this link for the best language site on the Internet.

i.e. or e.g.?
"Properly used, each of these is Standard. I.e. abbreviates Latin id est, 'that is'; use it when you wish to repeat in different words what you've just finished saying: I'm strongly opposed; i.e., I'm determined not to cooperate. E.g. abbreviates the Latin tag exempli gratia, 'for the sake of example, for example.' [Eat foods containing a lot of fiber, e.g., fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.] People sometimes say the names of the letters i and e or e and g instead of saying the English that is or for example, but the abbreviations aren't much shorter, and most of us would prefer the English words in speech, no matter how familiar the Latin abbreviations are in writing....Most editors put them in italics; all require a comma after the second period (The Columbia Guide to Standard American English 165).

Idiom?
According to The Merriam Webster's Dictionary of English Usage, "The word is...applied to those expressions or constructions that either are not transparent from the usual current meanings of the individual words that make them up or that appear to violate some grammatical precept"(519). See ice cream and ice water.

If or Whether?
According to The Careful Writer, "Whether is the normal word used to introduce a noun clause: 'They asked whether we would attend the dinner.' However, if is well established in this role in most constructions. It, too, may be used to introduce noun clauses after such verbs as see, ask, learn, doubt, and know. Nor is this usage a recent deviation, as some grammarians seem to suggest. The Oxford quotes from the King James Bible of 1611, 'He sent forth a dove from him, to see if the waters were abated' (Genesis viii, 8). If is not used in this way , however, when the noun clause begins the sentence, because it tends to throw the reader off the track by suggesting a condition, as in this example: 'If we were coming to dinner was the object of his inquiry.' Likewise, if should not be used where it opens the door to ambiguity, as in the following sentence: 'The President asked to be informed if his bill was in trouble in the Senate.' Does it mean 'at whatever time' his bill was in trouble or whether his bill was in trouble now? (Bernstein 222).
The Oxford Dictionary of American Usage and Style adds that "It's good practice to distinguish between these words. Use if for a conditional idea, whether for an alternative or possibility. Thus, Let me know if you'll be coming means that I want to hear from you only if you're coming. But Let me know whether you'll be coming means that I want to hear from you about your plans one way or the other (Garner 180).

Imply or infer?
"If you imply something, you hint or suggest it. If you infer something, you reach a conclusion on the basis of evidence. EXAMPLES: His memo implied that the project would be delayed. The general manager inferred from the memo that the project would be delayed" (Alred, Gerald, Charles Brusaw and Walter Oliu. The Technical Writer's Companion 318).

In regard(s) to?
The Oxford Dictionary of American Usage and Style says, "The singular noun is correct. The plural form (as in with regards to and in regards to) is, to put it charitably, poor usage....The plural regards is acceptable only in the phrase as regards" (Garner 286).

Independent vs dependent clauses?
An independent clause (also called main clause) "can stand alone and make sense. A subordinate clause [also called dependent]relies on the presence of a main clause to cmplete its meaning. It cannot stand alone as a grammatically complete thought.

I know the restaurant that you are thinking of.
This sentence contains both a main clause and a subordinate clause. The main clause is I know the restaurant. It has a subject, I, and a predicate, know the restaurant. By itself on a page or in our ears, it is a complete grammatical thought. When main clauses stand alone , we call them simple sentences.
The subordinate clause in this sentence is that you are thinking of. It too has a subject, you, and a predicate, are thinking of that, but this clause cannot stand alone and make sense. It relies on the presence of the main clause for a complete meaning. That is why we label it 'subordinate.' The word subordinate means 'of lesser rank' or 'under another's control'" (Strumpf, Michael. The Grammar Bible 334-335).

Intensifiers? really, really tough?
According to Common Errors in English, "People are always looking for ways to emphasize how really, really special the subject under discussion is. (The use of 'really' is one of the weakest and least effective of these.) A host of words has been worn down in this service to near-meaninglessness. It is well to remember the etymological roots of such words to avoid such absurdities as 'fantastically realistic,' 'absolutely relative,' and 'incredibly convincing.' When you are tempted to use one of these vague intensifiers, consider rewriting your prose to explain more precisely and vividly what you mean: 'Fred's cooking was incredibly bad' could be changed to 'When I tasted Fred's cooking, I almost thought I was back in the middle-school cafeteria" (Brians 36).

Into or in to?
"...into and in to sometimes puzzle people. Into, ... a preposition, indicates motion outside to inside or, figuratively, a modification of condition: 'He stepped into the car,' 'She went into the doldrums.' Sometimes the in is a 'where' adverb used with the preposition to: 'You may go in to see the patient,' 'He went in to his friends in the next room.' When the in is used as an adverb, as in the preceding sentences, there is a rule: The to must not be joined to it" (Bernstein, Theodore. Dos, Don'ts & Maybes of English Usage 111).

Irony, sarcasm, or facetiousness?
According to The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, irony is the use of words to express something different from and often opposite to their literal meaning. Sarcasm is a cutting , often ironic remark intended to wound or to make its victim the butt of contempt or ridicule. By contrast, facetiousness is playfully jocular or humorous.

It is I or it is me?
It is I or it is me? According to the Merriam Webster's Dictionary of the English Language,"...instead of the old choice between right and wrong we are now choosing a style; it is a choice that is much closer to the reality of usage than the old one was...Clearly, both the it is I and it's me patterns are in reputable use and have been for a considerable time. It is I tends to be used in more formal or more stuffy situations; it's me predominates in real and fictional speech and in a more relaxed writing style. Him, her, us, and them may be less common after the verb to be than me is, but they are far from rare and are equally good" (566, 568).

It's her or it's she?
Patricia O'Conner, author of Woe Is I, says, "It's OK to use It is me, It's her, and similar constructions, instead of the technically correct but stuffier It is I, That's he, and It's she.... Unless you're addressing the Supreme Court or the Philological Society, you can drop the formality (186).

Its or It's?
This one is simple if you remember that it's is a contraction of it is or it has. Example: "It's a beautiful morning; however, it's been an ugly season."

Licence or License?
"Licence" as a noun and verb is chiefly a British usage and a variant of "license." "License" has, according to the Cambridge Dictionary of American English, three meanings: "noun--an official document that gives you permission to own, do, or use something* a gun/fishing//export/driver's/liquor license; verb-- She's licensed to teach elementary school; noun--the freedom to break rules or principles, or to change facts, esp. when producing a literary or artistic work*poetic/artistic license (499).

Lie or Lay ?
The verb lay means "to place or set down." It always takes a direct object, the thing that is placed or set down. Examples: "I laid the magazine on the table." "I have laid the bike under the tree." The verb lie means "to recline." It does not take a direct object. Examples: "I will lie down around noon." "Let's go lie out on the grass."

Like or such as?
Like or such as? Patricia O'Conner says, "It's a matter of taste--either is acceptable. To my ear, like sounds better; such as has a more formal air" (Woe Is I 103). James J. Kilpatrick argues that there is a significant difference: "When we are talking of large, indefinite fields of similarity, like may properly be used.... When we are talking about specifically named persons [places or things]...included in a small field, we ought to use such as" (qtd. in Lederer and Dowis. Sleeping Dogs Don't Lay 79). "In 'Books like this one can help you write better,' like means similar to. In 'Cities such as Atlanta and Birmingham are important to the economy of the Southeast,' the intent is to specify those cities as examples, not merely to put them into a broad category of cities that are important to the economy of the Southeast" (Lederer and Dowis. Sleeping Dogs Don't Lay 79).
Standard usage varies a good deal, and you're safe using either.

Linking Verbs?
According to The Complete Idiot's Guide to Grammar and Style, a very useful tool. "Linking verbs join the subject and predicate. Linking verbs do not show action. Instead, they help the words at the end of the sentence name or describe the subject. Here are the most common linking verbs: be, feel, grow, seem, smell, remain, appear, sound, stay, look, taste, turn, become. The most common linking verb is some form of to be, such as am, are, is was, were, am being, can be, have been, and so on. Although small in size as well as number, linking verbs are used a great deal. The manager was happy about the job change. He is a fool. Many linking verbs can also be used as action verbs. For example: Linking: The kids looked sad. Action: I looked for the dog in the pouring rain. To determine whether a verb is being used as a linking verb or an action verb, use am, are, or is for the verb. If it makes sense, the original verb is indeed a linker(46).

littler and littlest?
Bernstein in The Careful Writer says the following: "Although occasionally used, both these forms [littler, littlest ] are regarded as dialectical or perhaps as juvenile. When size is involved, the better forms are smaller and smallest; when quantity or importance is involved, the forms are less (sometimes lesser) and least" (263).

Majority is or are?
"Many words that mean a group of things--total, majority, and number, for example--can be singular or plural. Sometimes they mean the group acting as a whole, sometimes the members of the group.
As with the other two-faced words, ask yourself whether you are thinking of the whole or the parts. A little hint: The before the word (the total, the majority) is usually a tip-off that it's singular, while a (a total, a number), especially when of comes after, usually indicates a plural. Each of these examples illustrates both (the verbs are underlined, one singular and one plural).
The majority is in charge. Still, a majority of voters are unhappy.
The total was in the millions. A total of six were missing.
The number of hats Bette owns is astounding. A number of them are pretty ridiculous" (O'Conner, Patricia. Woe Is I 26).

May or might?
The Careful Writer offers the following on this point: "In grammatical terminology may is called the present tense and might the past tense, but this classification is more technical than real because both words apply to the present or the future. The past tense--might--has less to do with time than it has with furnishing the proper grammatical concordance. In the present tense we say, 'He thinks he may go to Washington.' In the past tense we say, 'He thought he might go to Washington.'
Beyond this purely grammatical distinction, however, a distinction in meaning emerges in the ordinary usage of the words. May poses a possibility; might adds a greater degree of uncertainty to the possibility. This shade of difference appears in the following sentence: 'Any broadcasting station that airs more commercials than the code allows may be fined, and in extreme cases its license might be taken away.' Notice that no grammatical difference dictates the of may in one instance and might in the other; it is rather a difference in intended meaning. If we say, 'You had better get your tickets now or the house may be sold out,' we suggest a real possibility; if we say, 'You has better get your tickests now or the house might be sold out,' the possibility is there but it is made to seem faintly more remote" (271).

Me, Myself, or I?
According to The Oxford Dictionary of American Usage and Style, "Myself is best used either reflexively (I have decided to exclude myself from consideration) or intensively (I myself have seen instances of that type). But myself shouldn't appear as a substitute for I or me. Using it that way is thought somehow to be modest, as if the reference were less direct [emphasis added]. Yet it's no less direct, and the user may unconsciously cause the reader or listener to assume an intended jocularity, or that the user is somewhat doltish. E.g.: 'The exclusion of women and women's concerns is self-defeating. For instance, myself and other women in Hollywood [read many women in Hollywood, including me,] would deliver millions of dollars of profit to the film industry if we could make films and television shows about the lives of real women' (L.A. Times)./ 'My wife and myself [read I] were in a religious cult for over 15 years before the leader fell over dead' (Bloomington Pantagraph)(224). Some useful suggestions from The Grammar Bible:
1) "The reflexive pronouns often refer or reflect back to the subject of the sentence. I gave myself the day off. My parents treated themselves to a night on the town. In the first sentence, the pronoun myself refers back to the subject I. In the second sentence, the pronoun themselves refers back to the subject parents. In a sense, these pronouns are turning the action of the verb back to the subject of the sentence.
2) The reflexive pronouns may also fill an emphatic role. Here, these pronouns place emphasis on another noun or pronoun in the sentence. You yourself told me to ask for a raise. Janet built the house herself. In the first example, the pronoun yourself emphasizes the subject you, and in the second, the pronoun herself emphasizes the subject Janet.
3) Never use a reflexive pronoun in place of a standard personal pronoun. They are correctly used only in the reflexive or emphatic roles. The following sentences are incorrect:
John and myself repaired the copy machine. (incorrect)
Jane drove Sherry and myself to the movies. (incorrect)
They should read:
John and I repaired the copy machine. (correct)
Jane drove Sherry and me to the movies. (correct)
This problem most often occurs when someone substitutes the singular, first-person reflexive pronoun myself for one of the singular, first person personal pronouns I or me. Be careful! (Strumpf 191-192).
4) The Grammarlady offers the following advice: "DO NOT USE THE SELF WORDS TO AVOID CHOOSING BETWEEN 'I' and 'ME.'" "IF ONE OF THE PRONOUNS IS 'I,' IT COMES LAST IN THE SERIES" (Dear Grammar Lady 6-7). Example: "Myself, my sister Mary, and my mom went to Chicago last week." Put the I last in the sequence, and the sentence would read, "My sister Mary, my mom, and I went to Chicago last week."

Mid- or just mid?
The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language says the following: "Many compounds other than those entered here may be formed with mid-. In forming compounds, mid- is normally joined to the following word or element without a space or hyphen: midpoint. However, if the second element begins with a capital letter, it is always separated with a hyphen: mid-May. It is always acceptable to separate the elements with a hyphen to prevent possible confusion with another form, as, for example, to distinguish mid-den (the middle of a den) from the word midden" (1111).

Mrs./Miss/Ms.?
According to The Longman Writer's Companion, "To avoid the sexist labeling of women as 'married' or 'unmarried' (a condition not marked in men's titles), use Ms. unless you have reason to use Miss or Mrs. (for example, when giving the name of a character such as Mrs. Dalloway). Use professional titles when appropriate (Doctor, Professor, Senator, Mayor) (Anson, Schwegler, and Muth 431).

Netiquette
Start by looking at the Albion homepage at http://www.albion.com/netiquette. Then click on the link "Complete Online Edition: Table of Contents." The general Netiquette information is useful, but for business email information, scroll to Part III, Chapter 10 (Electronic Mail at Work) for appropriate corporate email manners.

None is or none are?
According to Merriam Webster's Dictionary of English Usage, "Clearly, none has been both singular and plural since Old English and still is. The notion that it is singular only is a myth of unknown origin that appears to have arisen in the 19th century. If in context it seems like a singular to you, use a singular verb; if it seems like a plural, use a plural verb. Both are acceptable beyond serious criticism" (664).

Numbers: When to spell out and when to write as numbers?
According to The Grammar Bible, "Always spell out numbers (including years) at the beginning of sentences. Within a sentence, spell the numbers zero through ninety-nine, and write the numbers 100 and higher by using digits" (Strumpf 416).

In technical or scientific writing use numerals except at the beginning of sentences, but in general writing "Spell out a number composed of one or two words, treating hyphenated compounds as a single word.

twenty-two computers; seventy thousand eggs; 306 books

Because readers expect every sentence to begin with a capital letter, spell out any opening number (or rewrite the sentence).

inappropriate 428 houses in Talcott are built on leased land.
distracting Four hundred twenty-eight houses in Talcott are built on leased land.
easy to read In Talcott, 428 houses are built on leased land.

Treat numbers in the same category consistently in a passage, either as numerals (if required for one number, use them all) or as words.

consistent Cafe Luna's menu of 26 items soon expanded to 85 and then to 104 items" (Anson, Schwegler, and Muth. The Longman Writer's Companion 247).

The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (69-70) adds, "Except at the beginning of a sentence, always use numerals in the following instances:

WITH ABBREVIATIONS OR SYMBOLS

6 lbs. or 4:20 p.m. or 3%
8 KB or $9 or 2"

IN ADDRESSES

4401 13th Avenue

IN DATES

1 April 2001 April 1, 2001

IN DECIMAL FRACTIONS

8.3

IN PAGE REFERENCES

page 7

For large numbers, you may use a combination of numerals and words.

4.5 million

Express related numbers in the same style.

only 5 of the 250 delegates
exactly 3 automobiles and 129 trucks
from 1 billion to 1.2 billion."

OK or okay?
"The expression okay (also spelled OK) is common in informal writing but should be avoided in more formal correspondence and reports.
CHANGE The solution is okay with me.
TO The solution is acceptable to me (Alred, Gerald, Charles Brusaw and Walter Oliu. The Technical Writer's Companion 322).

OK--Word origin?
Click here.

On or upon?/ in or into?
On/upon and in/into are equally interchangeable according the Merriam Webster's Dictionary of English Usage.

Parallelism?
Parallelism? "Parallel structure is the use of the same grammatical form or structure for equal ideas in a list or comparison. The balance of equal elements in a sentence helps show the relationship between ideas. Often the equal elements repeat words or sounds.

Parallel: The instructor carefully explained 1)how to start the engine and 2)how to shift gears.

[1 and 2 are parallel phrases in that both start with how to: how to start the engine; how to shift gears.]

Parallel: 1)Getting the model airplane off the ground was even harder than 2)building it from a kit.

[1 and 2 are parallel phrases the begin with -ing verb forms: Getting the model airplane off the ground; building it from a kit.]

Parallel: She often went to the aquarium 1)to watch the fish, 2)to enjoy the solitude, and 3)to escape from her roommate.

[1,2, and 3 are parallel phrases the begin with to + verb.]

Parallelism is needed in the following constructions:

*Items in a series or list.
Parallel: Items often overlooked when camping include the following:
1. All medications normally taken on a daily basis
2. Books to read during leisure time
3. Quinine tablets to purify water
[parallelism with a series of nouns in a list]

Parallel: The three most important skills for that job are:
1. being able to adapt to new requirements
2. knowing appropriate computer languages
3. keeping lines of communication open
[parallelism with -ing verbs]

* Both...and, either...or, whether...or, neither...nor, not...but, not only...but also (correlative conjunctions)

Parallel: Both by the way he dressed and by his attempts at humor, it was clear that he wanted to make a good impression.
[parallelism with by the...phrases]

* And, but, or, nor, yet (coordinating conjunctions)

Parallel: Job opportunities are increasing in the health fields but decreasing in many areas of engineering.
[parallelism using -ing verbs]

* Comparisons using than or as

Parallel: The mayor noted that it was easier to agree to the new budget than to attempt to veto it.

[parallelism in a comparison with to + verb]

Proofing for Parallel Structure

1. As you proofread, listen to the sound when you are linking or comparing similar elements. Do they balance by sounding alike? Parallelism adds emphasis by the repetition of similar sounds.

2. As you proofread, visualize similar elements in a list. Check to see that the elements begin in the same way.

Isiah wondered whether it was better to tell his girlfriend that he forgot or if he should make up some excuse.

[Isiah wondered whether it was better
* to tell his girlfriend that he forgot

or

* if he should make up some excuse.]

Revised: Isiah wondered whether it was better to tell his girlfriend that he forgot or to make up some excuse.
(Harris, Muriel. Prentice Hall Reference Guide to Grammar and Usage 58-60)

Parenthetical Documentation?
[Click on Section-"Parenthetical Documentation"]Parenthetical Documentation

Plurals of Abbreviations, Letters,
and Numbers?

According to Patricia O'Conner in Woe is I, "No two authorities seem to agree on how we should form the plurals of abbreviations (GI, r.p.m.), letters (x,y,z), and numbers (9, 10). Should we add s, or 's. Where one style maven sees UFO's, another see UFOs. One is nostalgic for 1950's, the other for the 1950s. This is more a matter of taste and readability than of grammar, and frankly, we have better things to worry about. For the sake of consistency and common sense, here's what I recommend. To form the plurals of all numbers, letters, and abbreviations (with or without periods or capitals), simply add 's.
CPA's, those folks who can add columns of 9's in their heads, have been advising M.D.'s since the 1980's to mind their p's and q's, and never to accept IOU's. Things could be worse: there could be two IRS's" (30).

Plurals of proper names?
According to The Grammar Bible, "with proper names ending in a sound that blends well with s, simply add -s.

--Brown~the Browns

--Lindberg~the Lindbergs

--Ericson ~the Ericsons

--Shaw~the Shaws


With proper nouns ending in sounds that don't blend well with s, the sibilant sounds, add -es.

--Cox~the Coxes

--Jones~the Joneses

--Firch~the Firches

--Nemetz~the Nemetzes

--Cory~the Corys

--Handy~the Handys" (16-17).


Do not hang a sign on your porch ~The Johnson's~WRONG,WRONG,WRONG.

Possessive with a gerund?
A gerund is a verb form ending in -ing that functions as a noun. Example: "Crying is good for you." When a pronoun modifies a gerund or gerund phrase, use the possessive case ( my, our, your, his/her/its, their ). Example: "Your crying made me sad." Your modifies the gerund crying. Example: "My winning the lottery is unlikely." My modifies the gerund phrase winning the lottery. Nouns may also modify gerunds; add -'s to form the possessive case. Example: "The dog's suffering angered me."

Practise or practice?
The word practise is a British variant of practice. In American English we would use practice at all times. The meanings of the words are the same.

Preposition at end?
According to The Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of English Usage, "The preposition at the end has always been an idiomatic feature of English. It would be pointless to worry about the few who believe it is a mistake" (765).

Proportional or proportionate?
Both are correct and neither is preferred.

Punctuation of Dates?
The Longman Writer's Companion says the following: Dates. "Put a comma between the date and the year, between the day of the week and the date, and after the year when you give a full date.
I ordered a laptop on May 3, 1999, that arrived Friday, May 21.
You don't need commas when a date is inverted ( 5 July 1973 ) or contains only month and year, month and day, or season and year.
After tests in October 1999, we shipped the software by March 1, well before summer 2000" (214-215).

Quotation Marks and Other Punctuation
1) ALL commas and periods should be placed inside the quotation marks.
2) ALL colons and semicolons should be placed outside the quotation marks.
3) Question marks and exclamation marks should be placed within the quotation marks when they apply only to the quoted material; they should be placed outside when the entire sentence, including the quoted material, is a question or exclamation.

Reason is because?
"The words reason is (was, etc.) should be followed by a statement of the reason: 'The reason for his failure was illness.' ' The reason for the strict rules is to enforce discipline.' Similar statements can be made by using because: "He failed because of illness.' 'The rules are strict because it is necessary to enforce discipline.' Reason and because convey the same sense. It is illogical to use both words to indicate the same meaning. NOTE: When the statement of the reason is expressed in a clause, that clause should be introduced by that, NOT because: 'The reason for his delay is that he missed the plane connection.'" (Parle Craig, Ruth and Vincent Hopper. Barron's 1001 Pitfalls in English Grammar 77)

Regular and irregular verbs?
"English verbs are traditionally divided into two classes, according to the ways they form their past tense and past participles.
1. Some verbs are regular. This means they form the past tense and past participle by adding -d, -ed, or -t to the present form but don't change their vowel, as in walk, walked, walked.
2. Irregular verbs don't form the past by adding -ed or -d. The principal parts of irregular verbs are formed in many different ways....
>Sometimes, irregular verbs change tense without changing their endings. Instead, they usually travel in time by changing a vowel and adding -n or -en, as in begin, began, begun.
>Other times , they change their vowel and add -d or -t, as in lose, lost, lost.
>Or they may not change at all, such as set, set, set, and put, put, put" (Rosakis, Laurie. The Complete Idiot's Guide to Grammar and Style 85-86).

Check your dictionary for regular and irregular verb forms. In addition, almost all grammar books contain a list of irregular verbs.

Seemingly Plural Pronouns?
Anybody, anything, anyone, each, either, everybody, everyone, anything, neither, nobody, none, no one, somebody, someone, something. Of these troublesome words, A Writer's Reference says, "Even though the previous indefinite pronouns may seem to have plural meanings, treat them as singular in formal English. Everyone on the team supports the coach. Each of the furrows has [NOT HAVE] been seeded. Everybody who signed up for the ski trip was [NOT WERE] taking lessons. The indefinite pronouns none and neither are considered singular when used alone. Three rooms are available: none has a private bath. Neither is able to attend. When these pronouns are followed by prepositional phrases with a plural meaning, however, usage varies. Some experts insist on treating the pronouns as singular, but many writers disagree. It is safer to treat them as singular. None of these trades re- quires a college education. Neither of these pejoratives fits Professor Brady. A few indefinite pronouns (all, any, some) may be singular or plural depending on the noun or pronoun they refer to. Some of the lemonade has disappeared. Some of the rocks were slippery" (168-169).

Semicolon use?
A semicolon following an independent clause [a complete sentence] signals that what follows is also an independent clause whose meaning is of equal importance to the first. Joining two clauses with a semicolon alone is appropriate only when the clauses are closely related and the relationship is clear. If they are not closely related, you probably should make them separate sentences. RULE: Although an independent clause following a semicolon is essentially a complete sentence, it never begins with a capital letter. Unlike a coordinating conjunction [and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet), a conjunctive adverb [however, nevertheless, accordingly, besides, indeed, similarly, then, thus, therefore, that is and others, or a transitional expression ["in fact" or "for example"] cannot be used with a comma to join two independent clauses. Conjunctive adverbs and transitional expressions require a stronger mark of punctuation: a semicolon [I wasn't busy;however, I did not have time to play golf.] 2) "When items in a series contain commas, readers may have difficulty deciding which commas separate parts of the series and which belong within the items. To avoid confusion, put semicolons between elements in a series when one or more contain other punctuation.[Confusing: "I interviewed Debbie Rios, the attorney, Rhonda Marron, the accountant, and the financial director." Edited: "I interviewed Debbie Rios, the attorney; Rhonda Marron, the accountant; and the financial director."] (The Longman Writer's Companion).

Set or Sit?
Set is a verb meaning "to put" or "to place." Example: "He set the urn on the table." Sit is a verb meaning "to be seated." Example: "He sat on the couch next to the dog."

Shall or will?
"Once upon a time, refined folks always used I shall or we shall to refer to the simple future, not I will or we will. But will has edged out shall as the people's choice. Shall can still be used with I and we in an offer or a proposal: Shall I freshen your drink,or shall we go?" (Patricia O'Connner. Woe Is I. 188-189).

sic?
"That little word sic is a latin word meaning thus or just so. It is normally enclosed in brackets and inserted into quoted matter to indicate that the preceding word or words, mistaken though they may be, were just that way in the original. Thus the word sic gets the quoter off the hook and leave the quote on it" ( Bernstein, Theodore. Dos, Don'ts & Maybes of English Usage 202).

Single quotation marks?
"Single quotation marks enclose a quotation within a quotation. Open and close the quoted passage with double quotation marks, and change any quotation marks that appear within the quotation to single quotation marks.
Baldwin says, "The title 'The Uses of the Blues' does not refer to music; I don't know anything about music." (Lunsford. The Everyday Writer 335)

Spacing after concluding marks of punctuation?
The MLA website says the following: "Because it is increasingly commmon for papers and manuscripts to be prepared with a single space after all punctuation marks, this spacing is shown in the examples in the MLA Handbook and the MLA Style Manual. As a practical matter, however, there is nothing wrong with using two spaces after concluding punctuation marks unless an instructor or editor requests that you do otherwise."

Split infinitives? "To boldly go where..."
Splitting infinitives is not a sin or a crime. Try to avoid doing so because so many crusty grammarians have a fit, but if you come up with 'To boldly go where no man has gone before," leave it and smile. Seriously, it's just not worth bothering about today.

State Abbreviations?
The AP Stylebook says the following: "Use the two-letter Postal Service abbreviations only with full addresses, including ZIP code. PUNCTUATION: Place a comma between the city and the state name, and another comma after the state name, unless ending a sentence or indicating a dateline: He was traveling from Nashville, Tenn., to Austin, Texas, en route to his home in Albuquerque, N.M. She said Cook County, Ill., was Mayor Daley's stronghold" (231).

Subjunctive? If I were/was a rich man...
"The subjunctive mood expresses something that is contrary to fact, that is conditional, hypthetical, or purely imaginative; it can also express a wish, a doubt, or a possibility. The subjunctive mood may change the form of the verb, but the verb be is the only one in English that preserves many such distinctions.
EXAMPLES The senior partner insisted that he (I, you, we, they) be in charge of the project.
If we were to close the sale today, we would meet our monthly quota.
If I were you, I would postpone the trip.
The advantage of the subjunctive mood is that it enables us to express clearly whether or not we consider a condition contrary to fact. If so, we use the subjunctive; if not, we use the indicative.
EXAMPLES If I were president of the firm, I would change several personnel policies.(subjunctive)
Although I am president of the firm, I don't feel that I control every aspect of its policies. (indicative)" (Alred, Gerald, Charles Brusaw, and Walter Oliu. The Business Writer's Handbook 375).

When "if" isn't subjunctive: According to English Grammar for Dummies, "You may think that all sentences with the word if need a subjunctive verb. Nope. Some if sentences don't express a condition contrary to fact; they express a possibility, something that may happen. The if sentences that express a possibility take a plain old, normal, indicative verb. Here are some examples:

NON-SUBJUNCTIVE IF SENTENCE: If Lochness goes to prison, he will take a burrito cookbook with him.
WHY IT'S NOT SUBJUNCTIVE: Prison is a possibility.
NON-SUBJUNCTIVE IF SENTENCE: If Ludwig divorces, he will remarry within a year.
WHY IT'S NOT SUBJUNCTIVE: Divorce is a possibility. In fact, Ludwig is already looking around.
In an if sentence, if something is possible, use a normal everyday verb to say it. If something is untrue, use a subjunctive verb" (Woods 291).

Than I/ than me?
"She is tougher than I." / "She is tougher than me." "She plays as well as I." / "She plays as well as me." Correct: "She is tougher than I (am)." "She plays as well as I (do)."

The Columbia Guide to Standard American English says the following: "Than is both a subordinating conjunction, as in She is wiser than I am, and a proposition, as in She is wiser than me. As a subject of the clause introduced by the conjunction then, the pronoun must be nominative, and as object of the preposition than, the following pronoun must be in the objective case. Since the following verb am is often dropped or 'understoood,' we regularly hear than I and than me. Some commentators believe that the conjunction is currently more frequent than the preposition, but both are unquestionably Standard [emphasis added].... Than is frequently misspelled then, although in Edited English it is usually caught and corrected. But watch for the error" (433-434).

That or Which?
According to The Grammar Bible,
"That refers to people, animals, or things.
The woman that witnessed the shooting will testify tomorrow.
The camel that carried us through the desert has died.
The explorers found the cave that hid the treasure for so many years.
Which refers to animals and things, never to people.
The dog which tipped over my garbage can needs a shorter leash.
The crowd cheered as the plane which had flown around the world landed (Strumpf 198).
Common Errors in English argues that "there is little evidence that this distinction is or has ever been regularly made in past centuries by careful writers of English. However, a small but impassioned group of authorities has urged the distinction; so here is the information you will need to pacify them.
If you are defining something by distinguishing it from a larger class of which it is a member, use 'that': 'I chose the lettuce that had the fewest wilted leaves.' When the general class is not being limited or defined in some way, then 'which' is appropriate: 'He made an iceberg lettuce Caesar salad, which didn't taste right'" (Brian 61-62).

The faculty is or the faculty are?
According to Merriam Webster's Dictionary of American Usage, "Faculty in American English most often serves as a collective noun meaning 'the teaching and administrative staff in an educational institution'...but faculty is also used in the U.S. as a plural having the sense 'faculty members'.... This plural use of faculty has drawn the disapproval of several commentators.... It continues to be common, however, and has clearly established a secure place for itself in the language of academics. If you dislike it, use 'faculty members' or 'teachers' instead" (427).

The meanings of grammar?
1a. "The study of how words and the component parts combine to form sentences. b. The study of structural relationships in language or in a language, sometimes including punctuation, meaning, and linguistic history. 2a. The system of inflections,syntax, and word formation of a language. b. The system of rules implicit Ian a language, viewed as a mechanism for generating all sentences possible in that language. 3a. A normative or prescriptive set of rules setting forth the current standard of usage for pedagogical or reference purposes. b. Writing or speech judged with regard to such a set of rules. 4. A book containing the morphologic, syntactic, and semantic rules for a specific language (The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language 763).

According to The Grammar Bible, grammar "is the regular system of rules that we use to weave sounds into the meaningful units with which we express our thoughts and ideas, creating language. We call this system grammar.
In a simple sense, grammar is the study of words and the ways words work together. It is a sort of invisible hand that guides us as we put words together into sentences. Any person who is able to communicate using a particular language has knowledge of the grammar of that language, even if his or her knowledge is unconscious. Grammar is pervasive" (Strumpf xiv).

Then or than?
Than is used to indicate comparison or degree: His drive was longer than mine. Then is used to indicate time: Then he putted out and won the tournament.

Thru or through?
Through serves as an adjective, adverb, and preposition. Since thru is informal and should not be used in formal writing, just keep on using through as you have in the past.

To, too, or two?
According to The Least You Should Know About English,
"Two is a number.
†††I have two brothers. Too means "more than enough" or "also." †††The lesson was too difficult and too long. She was too late. (more than enough)
†††I found it boring too. (also)
†††I'll be at the party too. (also)
Use to for all other meanings.
†††He likes to snorkel. He's going to the beach" (Glazier 18).

Toward or towards?
The two are interchangeable. Toward is more common in American English; towards is the more common usage in British English.

Toward(s), forward(s), backward(s)?
Patricia O'Conner, author of Woe Is I, says, "No final s ("towards"), although that's how they say it in Britain, Similarly, in American English, standard practice is not to add a final s to forward, backward, upward, onward, downward, and so on. George and Kramer were last seen heading toward the buffet" (116-117).

Transitive or intransitive verbs?
According to The Grammar Bible, "Any verb that requires a direct object is known as a transitive verb.
I trim the lawn.
The noun lawn receives the action of the verb, the trimming. The verb trim is a transitive verb.
I taught the children.
The noun children receives the action of the verb, the teaching. The verb taught is also a transitive verb.

Verbs that do not take objects are intransitive verbs.
We shall run when we get the chance.
No word receives the action of this verb. Therefore, run is an intransitive verb.
We stayed at the Ritz.
No noun or pronoun receives the action of this verb either. It is intransitive.

Some verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, depending on how they are used.
TRANSITIVE
I work the lathe in the workroom.
Bob operates the copy machine.

INTRANSITIVE
She works at the copy shop.
Dr. Blaum operates on her patients.
(Strumpf 78-79).

Try and or try to?
"The phrase try and is colloquial for try to. Unless you are writing a casual letter, use try to. CHANGE Please try and finish the report on time.
TO Please try to finish the report on time(Alred, Gerald, Charles Brusaw and Walter Oliu. The Technical Writer's Companion 327).

Unique or more unique?
"Unique means one of a kind: 'His was a unique personality.' It cannot logically be used in a comparative or superlative form. Something may be more or most odd, rare, unusual, peculiar, remarkable, etc., but NOT more or most unique." (Parle Craig, Ruth and Vincent Hopper. Barron's 1001 Pitfalls in English Grammar 78)

Who or That or Which or What?
"Who and its accompanying forms only refer to people.
The people who climbed that mountain are crazy.
The people whom we saw earlier looked concerned.
I saw the woman whose book won the literary award.
Which refers to animals and things, never to people.
The dog which tipped over my garbage can needs a shorter leash.
The crowd cheered as the plane which had flown around the world landed.
Please note that English grammar allows the use of whose as a replacement for which.
We encountered animals the ferocity of which was frightening.
We encountered animals whose ferocity was frightening.
Both sentences are grammatically correct, but the second is easier on the ears.
That refers to people, animals, or things.
The woman that witnessed the shooting will testify tomorrow.
The camel that carried us through the desert has died.
The explorers found the cave that hid the treasure for so many years.
What refers only to inanimate objects, never to people or animals.
I saw what happened to your wallet.
The expert mountaineer knew what he was talking about" (Strumpf 198-199).

Who or Whom?
In informal contexts we often do not make this distinction, but if we are trying to be careful writers and speakers, we ought to. The Grammar Lady's explanation is the best I've found." RULE: Keep in mind that who/whom is a pair of pronouns just like he/him (they/them). If you would use he (they), use who; if you would use him (them), use whom.
EXAMPLES:

--He gave us the day off. Who gave us the day off?

--I saw the women (them) you spoke to. I saw whom you spoke to.

--Did you see him leave? Whom did you see leave?

--Did you say he left? Who did you say left?

COMPLICATION: In complicated sentences the who/whom pronoun seems to fulfill both the subject and object functions. When this happens, the subject wins--use who.
EXAMPLES:

--The church needs someone who/whom can lead the young people's group.[use who].

--She was a person who/whom the politicians could not influence.[use whom].

--No one knows to who/whom the chairman was referring.[use whom].

--They couldn't plan a strategy until they knew who/whom the opponents were.[use who].

--The members who/whom have paid their dues are qualified to vote.[use who].

--Who/whom did you say called?[use who].

--The secretary said she would work for who/whomever got the job.[use whoever].

--Compose the letter after you and John have determined who/whom should write to who/whom.[use who,whom].

--He knows who/whom to call.[use whom]

(Dear Grammar Lady 18-21).

Why is "I" capitalized?
"Ego has nothing to do with the capitalization of the pronoun I. Printing and handwriting have everything to do with it. In Middle English the first person was ich--with a lower-case i. When this was shortened to i, manuscript writers and printers found it often got lost or attached to a neighboring word. So the reason for the capital I is simply to avoid confusion and error. Of course, some writers refuse to be bound by this convention. Two of our favorites, the poet e.e. cummings and Don Marquis, author of archy and mehitabel, both favored the lower-case i" (Morris Dictionary of Word and Phrase Origins 303).

Word & Phrase Origins?
Wilton's Word & Phrase Origins

Words ending in -GRY?
Aside from "angry" and "hungry" there are no more common words ending in "-gry."
Do not waste your time searching or asking others to find them.

Works Cited Page?
[Click on Section-"Preparing a Works-Cited Page" and then click on Section-"A Sample Works-Cited Page."] Works Cited